Developing nurses' intercultural/intraprofessional communication skills using the EXCELLence in Cultural Experiential Learning and Leadership Social Interaction Maps
Henderson, S., & Barker, M.
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To examine how the use of Social Interaction Maps, a tool in the EXCELLence in Cultural Experiential Learning and Leadership Program, can enhance the development of nurses' intercultural/intraprofessional communication skills.
BACKGROUND: Nurses face communication challenges when interacting with others from similar background as well as those from a culturally and linguistically diverse background. We used the EXCELLence in Cultural Experiential Learning and Leadership Program's Social Interaction Maps tool to foster intercultural/intraprofessional communication skills in nurses. Social Interaction Maps describe verbal and nonverbal communication behaviours that model ways of communicating in a culturally appropriate manner. The maps include four stages of an interaction, namely Approach, Bridging, Communicating and Departing using the acronym ABCD.
DESIGN: Qualitative approach was used with a purposeful sample of nurses enrolled in a postgraduate course.
METHODS: Fifteen participants were recruited. The Social Interaction Map tool was taught to participants in a workshop where they engaged in sociocultural communication activities using scenarios. Participants were asked to apply Social Interaction Maps in their workplaces. Six weeks later, participants completed a semistructured open-ended questionnaire and participated in a discussion forum on their experience of using Social Interaction Maps. Data were content-analysed.
RESULTS: Four themes identified in the use of the Social Interaction Maps were (i) enhancing self-awareness of communication skills; (ii) promoting skills in being nonconfrontational during difficult interactions; (iii) highlighting the importance of A (Approach) and B (Bridging) in interaction with others; and (iv) awareness of how others interpret what is said C (Communicating) and discussing to resolve issues before closure D (Departing).
CONCLUSIONS: Application of the EXCELLence in Cultural Experiential Learning and Leadership Social Interaction Mapping tool was shown to be useful in developing intercultural/intraprofessional communication skills in nurses.