Preferred self-administered questionnaires to assess fear of movement, coping, self-efficacy, and catastrophizing in patients with musculoskeletal pain-A modified Delphi study
Sleijser-Koehorst, M.L.S., Bijker, L., Cuijpers, P., Scholten-Peeters, G.G.M., Coppieters, M.W
ABSTRACT: The way people with musculoskeletal disorders deal with pain influences their prognosis. Psychosocial factors that influence outcomes include fear of movement, coping, self-efficacy, and catastrophizing. A 3-round modified Delphi study was conducted with the aim to reach consensus on the most appropriate questionnaires to assess these 4 psychosocial factors in patients at risk of developing persistent musculoskeletal pain. The panel consisted of 36 experts, with track records in medicine, psychology, and allied health. To be considered an expert, a minimum number of authorships were required on research articles using self-administered questionnaires to assess these psychosocial factors in relevant patient populations. In round 1, the experts proposed 30 questionnaires to assess the 4 factors. In round 2, experts rated the questionnaires on suitability, considering clinimetric properties, content, feasibility, personal experiences, and expertise. The highest ranked questionnaires (maximally 5 per factor) were retained for round 3, in which the experts made a final assessment of the questionnaires and provided their positive and negative experiences with the questionnaires. Consensus was reached for the following questionnaires to assess (1) fear of movement: Fear Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire and Tampa Scale (full version or 11-item version); (2) coping: Coping Strategies Questionnaire (initial or revised version) and Chronic Pain Coping Index; (3) self-efficacy: Pain Self-Efficacy Questionnaire (full version or 2-item version); and (4) catastrophizing: Pain Catastrophizing Scale and the revised version of the Coping Strategies Questionnaire. Although other questionnaires can be considered in specific circumstances, these questionnaires are recommended in people with musculoskeletal pain.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially without permission from the journal.